Hacham Shalom Moshe Chai Gaguine was born to Rivka, Hacham Raphael Shar'abi's daughter, and to Hacham Haim Abraham Gaguine during the month of Tevet 5593 (1833) in Jerusalem.
He studied Torah with his father, with Hacham Yedidya Raphael Abulafia and with the kabbalists of the Beth El yeshiva in Jerusalem's Old City.
In 1862, Hacham Shalom Moshe Chai Gaguine left Jerusalem as a rabbinic emissary for the Beth El yeshiva and traveled among the Jewish communities of France and North Africa for a period of three years. He left on a mission again in 1871, this time traveling to Italy. Upon his return, he was appointed cantor of the Beth El yeshiva. He composed piyuttim and would give a weekly sermon at the Yochanan Ben Zakai synagogue in the Jewish Quarter.
Hacham Shalom Moshe Chai Gaguine passed away on 12 Elul 5643 (1883) and was buried in Jerusalem. His works include Yismach Lev – Responsa, Same'ach Libi – sermons, and Same'ach Nefesh – rules on Birkot HaNehenin [the blessings on pleasurable experiences]. He also wrote a commentary entitled Seviv LaOhel on his father's commentary on the Ohel Mo'ed book of rulings, written by Rabbi Shmuel Bar Meshulam Yarudeni.