Hacham Moshe Dayan was born to Rachel and Hacham Abraham in Cairo, Egypt, 1931. He studied at the Ahava Ve'akhva yeshiva with his teacher, the Rishon LeZion Hacham Ovadia Yosef, who officiated in Cairo as Head of the Bet Din.
In 1952 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the rabbinic seminary and received his rabbinic ordination from the Chief Rabbi of France at the time, Rabbi Yaakov Kaplan. Following his ordination he served as Rabbi of Northern France and as a rabbi in the French army. Hacham Moshe Dayan married Rivka and the couple had ten children.
In 1963 he immigrated to Israel and settled in the city of Holon, where he taught Torah at Pirhei Kehuna and Torah ve'Aliyah.
In 1972 Hacham Moshe Dayan relocated in order to serve as rabbi of the Egyptian Jews' Mekor Haim community in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where he established a Talmud Torah, had a mikve built, and ensured that meat would be kosher.
Hacham Moshe Dayan passed away from an illness on 21 Iyar 5739 (1979) at the age of 48. He was buried at the Mount of Olives cemetery in Jerusalem.
His book Likutei Hemed, printed before his death, has two parts and includes a collection of Halachot. Hemdat Moshe, published in his memory, is principally a collection of Torah articles by various writers, some of which were written by Hacham Moshe Dayan.